Plant the Right Tree Seedlings
   

Webster Forest Nursery

 

Seedling Species Types 
Available from Webster Forest Nursery

 
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)    
Douglas-fir 1+1 and 2+0 seedlingsThis species was first observed by Arthur Menzies on Vancouver Island when he accompanied the British naval captain Vancouver on an expedition to the Pacific Coast in the early 1790s. Douglas-fir is a dimorphic species with two more-or-less distinct forms. One of these is restricted to the forests of the Pacific slope and the other to those of the Rocky Mountain region. Douglas-fir comprises about 50 percent of the standing timber in the western forests. It produces more timber than any other American species. Trees in virgin forests average 180 to 250 feet in height and 4 to 6 feet in diameter. Under favorable conditions, trees 10 years of age may be 12 to 15 feet in height and 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Trees are found in a variety of soils but make their best growth in deep, rich, well-drained, porous loams in areas where there is an abundance of both soils and atmospheric moisture.
 
Grand Fir (Abies grandis)
This species is noted for the two distinct sizes of its needles: the ones on the upper side are shorter than those from underneath. Trees in the coastal forests reach 140 to 160 feet and 2-4 feet inGrand fir P+1 seedlings diameter. Mature trees are noted for their long, clear, columnar boles and dome-like crowns. Roots are deep and spreading and they prefer deep, moist alluvial soils in gulches, streams and gentle banks. Maturity is reached at 200 years.
 
Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) 
Lodgepole pine 2+0 seedlingLodgepole pine has a wide distribution throughout western North America. At least four varieties can be recognized. Two varieties of lodgepole pine are known as shore pine, typically found in the west. The other two are inland varieties of lodgepole pine.  Lodgepole is a relatively small tree ordinarily 25 to 30 ft high and 12 to 18 inches in diameter. It has a short, contorted bole and dense irregular crown of twisted branches extending nearly to the ground. The root system is deep and wide spreading and often associated with peat bogs.
 
Noble Fir (Abies procera) Noble Fir
Mature trees produce a long, clear bole with a dome like crown. With a deep and spreading root system, this species prefers a deep, cool and moist soil. Growth in height and diameter is slow during seedling stage but is moderately rapid in later years. Heights of 90 to 120 feet are reported of trees at ages of 100 to 120 years. Maturity is reached in about 350 years.
 
Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa)
Ponderosa pineThis species is found in commercial quantities in almost every state west of the Great Plains and is second to Douglas-fir in annual production of lumber. Ponderosa pine average 150 to 180 feet high and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. Even though this species commonly forms open parklike forest, the tops are ordinarily symmetrical and clear for one-half or more of their length. Short, conical or flat-topped crowns are characteristic of old trees. This species attains its maximum development on relatively moist but well-drained soils but is resistant to drought on dry sites. Over much of its range, ponderosa pine regeneration depends upon a bumper crop of seeds in conjunction with above average rain fall. Natural seedlings can exist under the canopy of the parent trees, even thought they grow quite slowly, 3 to 4 feet during the first 15 to 20 years.
 
Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)  Western Hemlock
Western hemlock timber was virtually unknown until the close of World War I, except locally. This is one the major timber-contributing species in the Pacific Northwest. This species varies from 125 feet to 175 feet in height and 2 to 4 feet in diameter. A distinguishing feature of western hemlock is the drooping terminal leader. An abundance of both soils and atmospheric moisture is a requisite for rapid growth.  Nearly pure, extensive forests of western hemlock occur in southeastern Alaska, coastal British Columbia and western Washington.   
  
Western Larch (Larix occidentalis) 
Western Larch This tree was discovered in 1806 by the Lewis and Clark Expedition on the upper watershed of the Clearwater River in western Montana. Sizes of this tree vary from 140 to 180 feet in height and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. The crowns are usually short, open and essentially pyramidal. In the summer, they are distinguished by the light lustrous green foliage. In the winter they lose their foliage and are bare. Western larch attains maximum size on deep, moist, porous soils in high valleys and on mountain slopes of northern and western exposure.
 
Western Redcedar (Thuja plicata)
Western redcedar was first observed by the Malaspina Expedition on the west side of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, near Nootka Sound in 1791. Found primarily in the Western Redcedar Pacific Northwest, it is the principle timber tree used in shingle manufacture in the United States and Canada. Under favorable conditions for growth, forest trees attain height averaging 150 feet to 200 feet and 4 to 8 feet diameter. The crown is typically irregular and is usually composed of numerous horizontal or drooping branches which bend upwards near the tips to form a distinct hook. This species generally inhabits moist flats and slopes, the banks of rivers an swamps. It does not flourish in dry soils.
 
Western White Pine (Pinus monticola)
Coming soon!
 
Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis)
Coming soon!
 
Red Alder (Alnus rubra)
Coming soon!
 
All of these species are available to purchase in one or more stock types from Webster Nursery. Be sure to check the currently available species before ordering, as our supply changed frequently.
 
Not sure what species are best for what areas?  Contact a Stewardship Forester, who can visit your site, answer questions, and provide suggestions.
 

Seedling Stock Types (Summary)

 
1+1  
This term designates a seedling grown for one year in a seedbed, harvested, root pruned to five inches and transplanted back into a nursery bed at seedlingsapproximately six seedlings per square foot. The transplanting process results in a larger caliper and a more fibrous root system. The seedling will have more side branching, with a minimum of 10 inches in height and 4 millimeters in caliper Douglas-fir 1+1 and 2+0(stem diameter at the root collar). The root system on a 1+1 plus the extra storage of food in the caliper and root system will allow the seedling to survive on an infertile site, compete with other vegetation and give it a better chance of surviving browse damage.
 
2+0  
This designates a seedling that was grown at approximately 25 seedlings per square foot in the seedling bed and grown in the field for two years (never transplanted). After two years the seedling is ready for outplant. The production costs are low because the seedling had not been lifted, packed and transplanted as in all of the transplant stock types. The root systems on such stock type are pruned horizontally in the ground at a six-inch depth and vertically between each row at the end of the first growing season. These cultural activities encourage branching of the remaining roots and promote more fibrous roots required for out planting survival. This stock type will survive in a site that has low competing vegetation and minimal levels of animal browsing.
 
Plug (P or S-8)  Ponderosa pine plug seedlings
This is a seedling grown in a greenhouse in containers that are narrow and deep. For some species, this stock type reduces the time between request and outplant. For some species, growing plug stock type is necessary due to low germination and early growth. Various sizes of containers are available but the target is a styro-2A (two cubic inch containers) if the seedling will be used for a Plug+1 stock type. A styro-10 will be used if the seedling will be used for out planting.
 
Grand-fir P+1 seedlingPlug+1 (P+1)  
After growing in the greenhouse for a year, the seedling is extracted from the container, root pruned at 5 inches and transplanted in a nursery bed at approximately six seedlings per square foot. As with the 1+1, the root pruning and transplanting generates a larger caliper stem and more mass in the root system. Cedar, hemlock, larch and some species of pine and true firs are propagated as Plug+1.
 
Plug+1/2 (P+1/2) 
Like the P+1, this stocktype combines greenhouse and bareroot phases, but the process is completed in one year instead of two. Seedlings are started in late winter in the greenhouse in small containers (2 cubic inches or smaller). In early summer, seedlings are transplanted into nursery beds at approximately six seedlings per square foot. The early start and low transplant density allow for the production of a relatively large seedling in a short amount of time.