The following technical reports, publications, and data sets were produced by, or in collaboration with, Washington Natural Heritage Program scientists. The reports are listed in descending order of publication date.
The US National Vegetation Classification (USNVC) is a dynamic classification, supported by a data standard that provides the basis for considering, evaluating, and acting on proposals for new types and additional changes to the hierarchy. The names and concepts of vegetation types in the reports below may vary slightly from the current classification. The most up-to-date list of associations known to occur in Washington is available here. For up-to-date range-wide descriptions, please search NatureServe Explorer and/or contact WNHP ecologists.
Ecological Integrity Assessments to Inform Prioritization of Protection and Restoration Actions and Monitor Progress in the Puget Sound Region: Final Report. 2022. Irene Weber, Tynan Ramm-Granberg, Jake Kleinknecht, and Bruce Schneider.
Ecological Integrity Assessments and Vegetation Surveys of Washington State Parks. 2021. Tynan Ramm-Granberg, Bec Braisted, and Irene Weber.
Revised Vegetation Classification for Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks: Project Summary Report. 2021. Tynan Ramm-Granberg, F. Joseph Rocchio, Catharine Copass, Ray Brunner, and Eric Nielsen.
Adapting Ecological Integrity Assessment Protocols for Monitoring Columbia Land Trust Conservation Properties. 2019. F. Joseph Rocchio and Tynan Ramm-Granberg.
An Introduction to NatureServe’s Ecological Integrity Assessment Method. 2016. Don Faber-Langendoen, Willism Nichols, Joe Rocchio, Kathleen Walz, and Joanna Lemly.
USNVC Classification for Washington’s Ecosystems. Full hierarchy with Group Descriptions. 2016. NatureServe.
Ecological Systems of Washington State. A Guide to Identification. 2015. F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Conservation Status Ranks of Washington’s Ecological Systems. 2015. F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Assessing the Condition of Spatial Priority Areas in the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion. 2014. Rex C. Crawford and Joe Rocchio.
Floristic Quality Assessment for Washington Vegetation. 2013. F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Eastern Washington Floristic Quality Assessment Index Calculator - Columbia Basin (Jan. 2014 version) - Sites within the Columbia Bain (i.e. arid lands below lower treeline).
Eastern Washington Floristic Quality Assessment Index Calculator - Mountains (Jan. 2014 version) - Sites above lower treeline in the East Cascades, Okanogan Highlands, Northern Rocky Mountains, and Blue Mountains.
Willapa NWR Phase II Ecological Integrity Assessment Pilot Project. 2013. Rex C. Crawford and F. Joseph Rocchio.
Vegetation/Landuse Map of Potential Habitat of Southwest Washington Prairie Species. 2013. Rex C. Crawford and F. Joseph Rocchio.
Applying NatureServe's Ecological Integrity Assessment Methodology to Washington's Ecological Systems. 2011. F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Monitoring Desired Ecological Conditions on Washington State Wildlife Areas Using an Ecological Integrity Assessment Framework. 2009. F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Plant Associations Known or With Potential to Occur within Ebey’s Landing National Historic Reserve, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, San Juan National Park. 2009. F. Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Biodiversity Significance of BLM Properties on Patos and Little Patos Islands, Carter Point, Lummi Rocks, and south end Eliza Island, Washington. 2006. Rex C. Crawford and Chris B. Chappell.
Wildlife Habitats: Descriptions, Status, Trends, and System Dynamics .2001. Christopher B. Chappell, Rex C. Crawford, Charley Barrett, Jimmy Kagan, David H. Johnson, Mikell O’Mealy, Greg A. Green, Howard L. Ferguson, W. Daniel Edge, Eva L. Greda, and Thomsa A. O’Neil; Chapter in Wildlife Habitat Relationships in Washington and Oregon.
Southwestern Washington Prairies: Using GIS to find Rare Plant Habitats in Historic Prairies. 2004. Florence Caplow and Janice Miller.
Changes in the South Puget Prairie Landscape. 1997. Rex Crawford and Heida Hall; Chapter in Ecology and Conservation of the South Puget Sound Prairie Landscape.
Native Vegetation of the South Puget Sound Prairie Landscape. 1997. Christopher B. Chappell and Rex C. Crawford; Chapter in Ecology and Conservation of the South Puget Sound Prairie Landscape.
Field Manual for Applying Rapid Ecological Integrity Assessments in Upland Plant Communities of Washington State (Version 1.4). 2020. F. Joseph Rocchio, Tynan Ramm-Granberg, and Rex C. Crawford.
San Juan Island National Historical Park Vegetation Classification and Mapping Project Report. 2012. F. Joseph Rocchio, Rex C. Crawford, and Catharine Copass.
Assessment of Ecological Condition of Silene spaldingii and Polemonium pectinatum Habitat. 2012. Rex C. Crawford and F. Joseph Rocchio.
An Assessment of the Ecological Characteristics and Ecological Integrity of the Palouse Prairie of Washington. 2011. Rex C. Crawford and F. Joseph Rocchio.
Current Vegetation of Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington State. Prepared for U.S. Department of Defense. 2010. Rex C. Crawford.
Identifying Protection and/or Restoration Priorities in the Washington State Park System Using an Ecological Integrity Assessment Framework – A Pilot Study. Prepared for Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission. 2010. Rex C. Crawford, F. Joseph Rocchio, and Eric Aubert.
National Natural Landmark Central Palouse Grassland Recommendation: Kahlotus Ridgetop. 2010. Rex C. Crawford and F. Joseph Rocchio.
Vegetation Classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks. Plant Association Descriptions and Identification Keys. 2009. Rex C. Crawford, Christopher B. Chappell, Catharine C. Thompson, and F. Joseph Rocchio.
A Geographic Information System Coverage of Existing Grasslands and Oak Woodlands in the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Ecoregions, Washington. 2008. Christopher B. Chappell, Mary Sue Gee, and Betty Stephens.
Conservation Strategy for Washington State Inland Dunes. 2007. Lisa A. Hallock, Ryan D. Haugo, Rex C. Crawford.
Grass-dominated Associations (Excel file)
Oak-dominated Associations (Excel file)
Douglas-fir-dominated Associations (Excel file)
Western Hemlock-dominated Associations (Excel file)
Seral Forest Associations (Excel file)
Distribution and Decline of Native Grasslands and Oak Woodlands in the Puget Lowland and Willamette Valley Ecoregions, Washington. 2001. Christopher B. Chappell, Mary Sue Mohn Gee, Betty Stephens, Rex Crawford, and Stephen Farone; Chapter from Conservation of Washington Rare Plants & Ecosystems. Washington Native Plant Society.
Pacific madrone forests of the Puget Trough, Washington. 1995; Christopher B. Chappell and David F. Giglio; Chapter in The Decline of Pacific Madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh): Current Theory and Research Directions.
Regional Inventories of Prairies in the Southern Puget Trough: Phase One. 1995. Heidi Hall, Rex Crawford, and Betty Stephens.
Wetlands and Riparian Areas
Wetland Types of Washington State: An Application of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification - Contact our ecologists for the draft version.
Field Guide to Wetland and Riparian Plant Associations of Washington State - Contact our ecologists for the draft version.
Sphagnum-dominated Peatlands in the Puget Lowlands: Ecology and Response to Adjacent Land Use. Implications for Conservation, Management, and Restoration. 2023. F. Joseph Rocchio, Tynan Ramm-Granberg, Jeremy Shaw, David Cooper, and Erin Herring.
Ecohydrological Characteristics of a Newly Identified Coastal Raised Bog on the Western Olympic Peninsula, Washington State, USA. 2021. F. Joseph Roccio, Edward Gage, Tynan Ramm-Granberg, Andrea K. Borkenhagen and David J. Cooper.
Ecological Integrity Assessments of Sites Sampled for EPA’s National Wetland Condition Assessment. 2021. Tynan Ramm-Granberg.
Field Manual for Applying Rapid Ecological Integrity Assessments in Wetlands and Riparian Areas in Washington State (Version 1.3). 2020. F. Joseph Rocchio, Rex C. Crawford, and Tynan Ramm-Granberg.
Development and evaluation of NatureServe’s multi-metric Ecological Integrity Assessment for wetland ecosystems. 2019. Faber-Langendoen, D., J. Lemly, W. Nichols, F.J. Rocchio, K. Walz, and R. Smyth. Ecological Indicators 104(9):764–775.
Assessment of Potential Recovery Actions for Lomatium bradshawii within the Lacamas Prairie Natural Area Preserve and Vicinity. 2018. Tynan Ramm-Granberg and F. Joseph Rocchio.
Advancing and Transferring Natural Heritage Wetland Data: Filling Survey Gaps, Delivering Data via the Web, and Training Wetland Professionals. 2017. F. Joseph Rocchio, Tynan Ramm-Granberg, and Rebecca Niggemann.
Reference Standard Wetlands for Washington State. An Approach Based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. 2017. F. Joseph Rocchio and Tynan Ramm-Granberg.
Toward Creating a National Reference Wetlands Registry. 2016. Robert P. Brooks, Don Faber-Langendoen, Gregg Serenbetz, Joe Rocchio, Eric D. Stein, and Kathleen Waltz. National Wetland Newsletter, Vol. 38, No. 3. Environmental Law Institute.
Rating the Condition of Reference Wetlands Across States: NatureServe’s Ecological Integrity Assessment Method. 2016. Don Faber-Langendoen, William Nichols, Joe Rocchio, Kathleen Waltz, Joana Lemly, Regan Smyth, and Kristin Snow. National Wetland Newsletter, Vol. 38, No. 3. Environmental Law Institute.
Wetland Ecosystem Conservation Priorities for Washington State. An Update of Natural Heritage Classification, Inventory, and Prioritization of Wetlands of High Conservation Value. 2015. F. Joseph Rocchio, Rex C. Crawford, and Rebecca Niggemann.
Wetland Conservation Priorities for Western Washington. A Focus on Rare & High-quality Wetland & Riparian Plant Associations. 2014. F. Joseph Rocchio, Rex C. Crawford, and Rebecca Niggemann.
Assessment of Ecological Characteristics and Ecological Integrity of Wetlands in Northern Douglas County, Washington. 2009. F . Joseph Rocchio and Rex C. Crawford.
Change in Extent and Ecological Condition of Wetlands Surrounding Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho. 2009. F. Joseph Rocchio.
Wet Prairie Swales of the South Puget Sound, Washington. 2005. Richard T. Easterly, Debra L. Salstrom, and Chris B. Chappell.
Ecological classification of low-elevation riparian vegetation on the Olympic Experimental State Forest: A first approximation. 1999. Christopher B. Chappell.
Preliminary Classification of Native, Low Elevation, Freshwater Wetland Vegetation in Western Washington. 1994. Linda M. Kunze.
Provisional Riparian and Aquatic Wetland Plant Communities of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. 1989. Shelly Evans.
Puget Trough Coastal Wetlands. Feasibility of Protection & Management. 1986. Linda M. Kunze, Christopher Garber, and Florence Caplow.
Puget Trough Freshwater Wetlands. A Summary of Biologically Significant Sites (1986-1991).
Puget Trough Coastal Wetland Sanctuaries. A Summary Report of Recommended Sites. 1984. Linda M. Kunze.
Baseline Inventory of Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plant Species/Communities Along Washington’s Pacific Coast. 1982. Linda M. Kunze and Lynn C. Cornelius.
Freshwater & Marine
A Marine and Estuarine Habitat Classification System for Washington State. 1997. Megan N. Dethier (with contributions from Linda M. Kunze).