Mount Baker
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Mount Baker 

Mount Baker dominates the skyline from Bellingham, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia. On cold, clear winter days, dramatic increases in the steam plume rising continuously from Sherman Crater can alarm local residents. This apparent increase in plume vigor occurs because of condensation of steam in cold, calm air. In 1975, however, increased steaming and melting of snow and ice around Sherman Crater did signify a change in heat output from the volcano's interior. Although the increased heat flow gradually subsided, it could have signaled the start of eruptive activity, and precautions were wisely undertaken. So that the public can be warned of, and be prepared for, future eruptions and other hazardous events at Mount Baker, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are studying the volcano's past behavior and monitoring its current activity.

Above text from U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 059-00, Online Version 1.0

Mount Baker Anaglyph

Mount Baker Anaglyph
Click below for full-size anaglyph:
175 dpi [283 Kb]
96 dpi [113 Kb]

This anaglyph, which can be seen in 3-D using red/green or red/blue glasses, was created by Terry Curtis, DNR's Photogrammetry Supervisor (360-902-1210) and prepared for the internet by Pat Pringle. Please note that the red lens should be over the left eye.

The view is looking down into Summit Crater with north to the right. The crater is more than 500 meters wide and more than 220 meters deep. In 1975, the crater displayed increased fumarolic activity including steam emissions several hundred meters in height; however, no eruption ensued.

Ironically, Summit Crater (the official geographic name), which is often called "Sherman Crater", is not located at the Mount Baker's true summit, but slightly lower on its upper south flank. Recently Carolyn Driedger of the USGS used "ice radar" to detect that an 80+ meter-deep crater is buried by ice and snow at Grant Peak (the volcano's true summit).

To compare the anaglyph to a topographic map of Mount Baker, visit TopoZone.

Sources of anaglyph glasses:
3-D Glasses Vendors, a list maintained by Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Metadata on original photos used:
Negatives owned by Washington Dept. of Natural Resources.
Photo ID : NW-C-01 Roll 78, Flightline 66, Exposures 94 and 95 Flown August 13, 2000 by WAC Corp, Eugene OR
Negative Scale: 1:12,000 (1 inch =3D approx 1000 feet)
Film: Agfa X-100, True Color 9x9 contact prints scanned at a resolution of 600dpi.
Anaglyph created using Adobe Photoshop 5.0, on Power Macintosh G-3.

Selected References—Mount Baker Volcanic Hazards
Cary, C. M.; Thompson, J. M. S.; Pringle, P. T., 1992, Holocene lahar deposits from Mount Baker volcano in Glacier Creek, North Cascades, Washington [abstract]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 24, no. 5, p. 13.

Easterbrook, D. J., 1975, Mount Baker eruptions: Geology, v. 3, no. 12, p. 679-682.

Frank, D. G., 1983, Origin, distribution, and rapid removal of hydrothermally formed clay at Mount Baker, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-E, 31 p., 1 pl.

Frank, D. G.; Meier, M. F.; Swanson, D. A.; and others, 1977, Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975–March 1976: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-A, 49 p.

Frank, D. G.; Post, A. S.; Freidman, J. D., 1975, Recurrent geothermally induced debris avalanches on Boulder Glacier, Mount Baker, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Journal of Research, v. 3, no. 1, p. 77-87.

Hyde, J. H.; Crandell, D. R., 1978, Postglacial deposits at Mount Baker, Washington, and potential hazards from future eruptions: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1022-C, 17 p., 1 pl.

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Geologic Hazards Group
Geology & Earth Resources Division
Washington State Department of Natural Resources
Fax 360-902-1785

Dave Norman
State Geologist and Oil & Gas Supervisor


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